Skip to main content

Full text of "Indians at Work"

See other formats


970. 1 



(See Next Pd^Te) 


Collection of Native North American Indian Books, 
Historical Books, Atlases, plus other important au^ 
thors and family heirloom books. 
As of 12-31-93 

Earl Ford McNaughton 

The Cover Photograph : In the dry lands Navajo forage is so scarce 
that herds of sheep travel far for sustenance. Among the many conserva- 
tion tasks on this vast arid land is that of bringing water to a parch- 
ing soil, destroyed in part by the shortsightedness of man, and now in 
process of slow restoration. Here we see, in typical Navajo sumirier fash- 
ion, a family camped for the night in their endless trek for forage. To- 
morrow, or perhaps the day after tomorrow, they will be on the move again. 
They will m.ove less often, and their sheep will be better fed, when con- 
servation efforts will have made several blades of grass grow where none 
grows now. 



Voiume VI N\3inter 8 


Editorial John Collier 1 

To The Indian, Conservation Is A Living 

Thing Floyd Tf . LaRouche 6 

In Papago Land Erik W. Allstrom 13 

The Month Of March Marked The 115th 

Anniversary Of The Indian Office 15 

Ten Degrees Below On Navajo River 16 

In 1875 It seems Ladies In The Indian Serv- 
ice Were Valued For Their Plainness 17 

"The New Day For The Indians" 17 

Red Shirt Table Development Philip S. iElyrnes 18 

Indian Basket Ball Team Wins I.D.R.A. 

Championship 21 

Indian Youths Paint Murals For San 

Francisco Exposition 22 

Secretory I ekes Views Indian Exhibit At Gold- 
en Gate International Exposition 23 

Interior Department Museum Attracts Many 

Visitors 24 

Pueblo Art In The Modern Home 25 

A Lawyer Looks At The American Indian, Past 

And Present Samuel J. Plickinger 26 

Washington Office Visitors 30 

Conservation At Navajo Means More Than 

Saving The Soil 33 

Oldest Ameri can-Ma,de Blanket On Display At 

State Museum, University of Arizona 36 

The Battle Against Tuberculosis Goes 

Forward Dr. J. G. Townsend 37 

Barter - Twentieth Century Version - A,t 

Jemez Pueblo, New Mexico Ten Broeck Williamson 38 

Indians Pay Income Taxes Too 39 

From CCC-ID Reports 42 

Edited by 
Floyd W. LaRouche 

Assisted Ijj' 

Margaxet Bingman 

Frances Waldman 

A.n Apache Woman Grinding Corn In The Ancient Manner 
Fort Apache Agency, Arizona 




The sixth anniversary of CCC - and Indian CCC 

5y now, there are many Indians of the younger generation who take 
CCC for granted. They do not remember how things were before. 

I refer not only to the work qpporttmity: thotigh the little wage, 
the happy work, surely are precious things. 

Rather, I refer to the work for one's own land - one's own tribe 
and race. Work wiiich saves the land - gives lasting life to the land - and 
strengthens and gives lasting life to the tribe, the race. 

There used to be millions of people - almost everybody - who said, 
"Indians won't work." Is there anybody who says that, now? 

There used to be millions - almost everybody - who said, "The In- 
dians are finished. They are finished as a race- Their younger generation 
is cut loose from its people. The long enterprise of the white man - to 
'liquidate' the Indian - is all but completed now." 

They said that not long ago, but is there anyone who saiys it now? 

Before too late, the white race changed its own purpose, saw its 

new light in the natter of Indians. The government changed its policies. 
Aad how the Indians responded to the chancel 

Indian COG, now six years old, is bone of the bone and flesh of the 
flesh of the Indians* new achievement. There is no part of Indian country, 
there are few fiinctions of Indian life, where it has not made an indispensable 
contribution. Truly, Indian CCC has been a creative force. "Sociogenic," to 
Use a highbrow word. Other factors have been no less essential i but none has 
operated more universally than GCC. 

Indians aboriginally were conservationists. Then they ceased to be 
conservationists. Then they once more became conservationists. Now, Indians 
are trail-blazers and banner-bearers in the nation-wide conservation movement 
which aims to ssdvage and restore a dajnaged, even a desperately menaced, con- 

.4nd Indian CCC has been, is» indispensably a part of this rebirth of 

The physical works accomplished through Indian CCC are all but as - 
trono^QicaJ. in their number. I do not cite the statistics here. They repre- 
sent Capital investment for the lasting future of great spaces of country, aa 
well as for the future of Indians. Economical capital investment, because of 
the way Indian CCC is planned and managed and because of the w^ that Indians 

But that, historically, is not the greater, the more moving fact. 
The change of direction of Indian life, the spirit reborn, the purpose reborn, 
the union of vision with the material earth - with the damaged and yet the 
everlasting earth, its herbage, from grasses to forests, its creature life, 


its waters, its soils - this is the grand fact. And in-woven with this fact 

everywhere is Indian CCC. Omt latitude to President Roosevelt, to Secretary 
I ekes, to Rotert FeCimer, to Daniel Mxirphy, to Jay P. Kinney, and to others 
whom this is not the place to name'. 


In the same quiet way that she performed her office tasks, Marion B. 
Hall, Editor of "Indians At Work" since the fall of 1936, recently moved into 
a new sphere of life. She is now Mrs. Howard Fisher of Hubbard Woods, Winnetka, 
Illinois, the marriage having taken place Febriiary 11, 1939. 

Her record as editor of this publication merits special recognition, 
8Jid all who were associated with her are eager to pay her tribute for her in- 
tellectual gifts, her fine discipline and her capacity for the most difficult 
and exhausting work. 

Marion Hall, daughter of Dr. Percival Hall, President of G-allaudet 
College, is a native Washingtonian, trained in the schools here and then at 
Goucher College. Her first government service was with the Bureau of Standards; 
then she went to the Tennessee Valley Authority, and then to the Office of In- 
dian Affairs . It was while she was with the Bureau of Standards that she was 
loaned to President Hoover's Conference on Home Building and Home Ownership, 
where she served as secretary to an important committee of which Miss Pearl 
Chase, of Santa Barbara, California, was chairman- Thro\:igh that assignment, 
which she executed with exceptional skill, she became known to the present 
Commissioner of Indian Affairs, and was appointed as one of his secretaries 
in March 1934. 

When Mary Heaton Vorse, on accoiint of ill health, was forced suddenly 
to give up her editorial duties, Marion Hall stopped the gap and did it so* well 
that she continued in the work. She carried much other work beside- Her con- 
nection, on a volvmteer basis, with Indian affairs will be a continuing one- At 
present, with Mr. Fisher, she is traveling among the Indians of Mexico. 

Commissioner of Indian Affairs 



In Six Tears He Has Begun To RecaptTire 
The Land That Was Slipping Away - And 
More Important He Has Refashioned His 
Own Destiny. 

By Floyd W. LaRouche 

Since the founding of the Indian Division of the Civilian Conserva- 
tion Corps, almost six years ago, there have been employed at various times, 
approximately 77,000 Indians in 23 states. These Indians of all adult ages, 
working for the most part on the land of their own reservations, have, besides 
increasing their immediate incomes, accomplished tasks of conserving and re- 
building their lands that will probably earn dividends for living Indians and 
their descendants for many generations. A third accomplishment, and one which 
the Government is only now beginning to tabulate in terms of actual statistics, 
is the training of Indians for expert work in fields apart from Indian Service 
employment . 

Possibly when completed the record will indicate that of all the ac- 
complishments of Indian CCC, the training of boys and men for skilled work in 
many branches of industry, agriculture, road building and so forth, will have 
been the most important of all. Meanwhile, other figures at hand tell some- 
thing of the extent to which the Indians have remade the map of Indian coxmtry 
and rebuilt their shattered earning power. 

It was late in June 1933, that the Indian Division of the CCC actual- 
ly began to function. The CCC was authorized in March and had been in opera- 
tion for some weeks before the peculiar conditions surromding the employment 
of Indians could be sufficiently ironed out to permit the enrolling of the 
first Indian. By June the money had been obtained and by J\ane 23 the first In- 
dian had been enrolled and put to work. Approximately $8,000 was spent in June 
and by July 1, the machinery of organization was moving at an accelerated tempo 
which from that day to this has never diminished and which at times, has been 
increased almost to the breaking point to meet new and sudden demands. 

But these things belong to history and the CCC-ID people have very 
little time for the past. They are still too new and too much absorbed in the 
present and in the future to dwell much on history. But most of them remember 
that in 1933 economic and spiritual daylight was fading fast. And for no one 
in the nation was the tragedy as deep and as stark as it was for the Indian - 
he who had for years and years subsisted on the fringe of poverty. Then with 
the whole country plvmged into stagnation, the condition of the Indian can 
scarcely be imagined. Of course, Indians had been living in a deepening twi- 
light for many years. For them, the long policy of liquidation was on the 
verge of closing out the last of their possessions. All but the poorest of 
their lands had been taken away and the residue was getting poorer every day. 


Overgrazed acres were beginning to break down, to blow away, and to wash away. 
Timber lands, where they had been cut over and burnt over, lay pai:5)erized. Over 
and over again there had been repeated the tragic story of assets tiirned into 
liquid cash, and the cash debayched. Indians, where they had been cajoled or 
driven into relinquishing their heritage of land and tribal ri^ts, were stranded 
on the outskirts of the white world, which resented their poverty and their lack 
of adjustment. This, very briefly, was the composite problem which the program 
of Jiraergency Conservation Work was required to attack. 

The iinergency Conservation A.ct , providing for the establishment of the 
Civilian Conservation Corps, adopted a base pay of $30 a month, and Q\xarters and 
subsistence. In organizing a separate Indian division (officially called lECliT 
at first) the general regulations were relaxed so as to permit Indians to work 
out of their own homes if they so desired, or out of family camps and camps for 
single men set up in the neighborhood of work projects. Work was limited to 20 
days per month, at $1.50 per day, to keep within the cash allowance of the $30 
per month authorized. A commutation of sixty cents a day was allowed for In- 
dians who lived at home and subsisted themselves; thus raising the monthly pay 
to $42. They now get $15 per month additional if they live at home. Another 
change is that instead of limiting employment to 20 days per month, work is 
now Carried for fifre eight-hour days each week. 

EncoToraged by these arrangements, the Indian families and individuals 
moved close to the job - and thus began a really amazing program of h\aman re- 
habilitation. Families that had been subsisting on a diet of boiled buckskin - 
the Indian equivalent for hard times - began to feel the blood thicken in their 
veins. In those first months, it was not uncommon for men to gain from five 
to ei^t pounds within a short time'. Muscles hardened. Faces filled out. 

Within the first year - 1933-34 - a monthly average of 10,000 Indians 
were kept at work. At least 50,000 individuals benefited. It meant the differ- 
ence between life and slow starvation. 

In the space of six years, approximately 77,000 individual Indians 

have been offered work for a greater or shorter period of time. Broken down 

into localities, this record means that Indians have been employed in CCC in 
the following states and in the following numbers: 

Arizona 19,520 Nevada 


California 2,438 

Colorado 496 

Florida 100 

Idaho 1 ,038 

Iowa 60 

Kansas 145 

Minnesota 2,535 

Mississippi 129 

Montana 5,067 

Nebraska 706 

Wyoming . 

New Mexico 4,467 

New York 240 

North Carolina 430 

North Dakota 2,606 

Oklahoma 21,354 

Oregon 2,767 

South Dakota 4,554 

Utah 746 

Washington 3,830 

Wisconsin 2,180 



This much we get from a recapitulation of statistical facts. It is 
by no means the whole human story of what the CCC has done for Indian morale, 
for Indian "betterment and for the Indian's spirit- To get that story one must 
have lived at the very soiirce of Indien life during the period of its deepest 
despair and then on through the period of restoration. Facets and figures, 
thou^ abtandant , are yet not completely adequate to tell the whole story. 

Side by side with the facts of immediate economic improvement among 
Indians is the record of the changes that have been raajde in the face of Indian 
lands. Here a^ain the facts are presented in terms of realistic records. Dif- 
ficult as it is to avoid the impressionistic end humanistic presentation, it 
is nevertheless true that the facts ^ without trimming, tell their own story. 

On J\ine 30, 1938 the record disclosed that Indian workers had built 
over 7,000 miles of truck trails, 2,500 miles of f irebreaJcs , 6,300 miles of 
telephone lines, 2,250 miles of horse and stock trails, 8,700 miles of fences; 
Indians have added to the water supply of ranges by developing 6,200 springs, 
small reservoirs and water holes, digging 1,350 wells, with pumps, windmills 
and pump-houses, building 1,064 impoxinding dajns and large reservoirs; they have 
improved their range lands by eliminating 275,255 head of useless stock, con- 
structing 70,000 erosion control water -spreading structTires, building 470 miles 
of stock driveways, erecting 896 vehicle bridges and 51 stock bridges, build- 
ing 152 corrals. Indian forest lands have, in addition to the improved trans- 
portation facilities and fire hazard reduction, been given added protection 
thro'ogh construction of 49 houses for fire guards, erection of 74 lookout tow- 
ers, maintaining over 250 crews of trained men on call at any hour of the day 
or night for fire fighting. 

From the very first, a policy of training Indians was adopted. The 
training was not only in the skills of performing work and in learning to oper- 
ate machines, but it was in leadership. At the beginning of the program the 
supervisory personnel was largely non-Indian. By March 1934 there were 455 In- 
dians to 385 non-Indians in supervisory positions. Since then, the Indian side 
of the ledger has been steadily in excess of the non -Indian side. In other 
words, Indians were taken as they were found, unskilled and largely unaccustomed 
to work. The response was immediate and it was much more gratifying than even 
the friendliest expected. The Indians went to work. They learned how to mas- 
ter skills, and today in the Indian country, it is not said so often that "the 
Indian won't work." He is working. 

The proof is the fact that Indians have gone on from CCC-ID work to 
many other fields. They have transferred to regular positions in the Indian 
Service; they have gone into commercial employment; and they have gone into 
businesses for themselves- In all of this, their training has been reflected 
in higher wages and salaries than they have been accustomed to receiving. 

Now that six years have passed, there is no longer any doubt about 
the gains that have come to Indians, and throvigh Indians, to the whole of Amer- 
ican life, through the medium of CCC The Indians wanted a chance to prove the 
things they coiild do with their hands and with their brains, and having had the 
opportunity, they have used it well. 




By Erik W. iQlstrom, Assistant Camp Supervisor, CCC-ID 

Corn And Beans In One Of The Bolsa Projects . 

(The Bolsa Is A Pocket Behind An Earth Dike 
To Catch And Hold Water For Occasional Flood 
Irrigation, When There Is Rainfall) 

Not many years ago, 
the Papago Indians of Southern 
Arizona were one of the poorest 
Indian groups living in North 
America. These Indians were ap- 
parently resigned to their pov- 
erty. Their doorless and window- 
less houses were made of long 
sticks plastered with mud, or of 
adobe bricks, with roofs of adobe 
mud heaped to a crown over a 
framework of mesquite branches. 
For food they grew several vari- 
eties of fine beans which they 
had developed themselves and al- 
so gathered the seeds of the 
desert grasses. They obtained 
sweets from the luscious, but 
thorny, fruits of several cactus 
plants. Until the white man came 
their meat diet consisted mostly of rabbit, and such other wild life as they 
could snare. Living as they did, in a region where the annual rainfall is not 
over nine inches, they did their simple farming on widely scattered flood plains 
where the occasional run -off of rainwater would soak up the soil sufficiently 
for the maturing of their 
beans and some native squash 
In early times their cloth- 
ing was prooably made of 
primitive native cotton 
cloth. Today, with limited 
incomes, their dress is 
still simple, but in harmony 
with current styles. 

The old life of 
the Papagos was definitely 
nomadic until after the res- 
ervation was established in 
1917". Each family had two 
or three homes, viiere at 
different times of the year, 
they grazed their few scrawny 
cattle. The house nearest 
to the bean patch was con- 
sidered the permanent home, 

San Xavier Indian Snrollees Layin^r Concrete 
Pipe For The Irrigation System Near End Of 
The Papago Reservation 


and the other places mi^ht 
be from ten to forty miles 
away in different directions 
Between these homes were 
wheel tracks across the 
desert - the tracks of ram- 
shackle wa^^ons piilled 
bony horses. For years the 
only road of any consequence 
was the highway between Tuc- 
son and Ajo across the reser 
vation, maintained by the 
state because it shortened 
the distance between the two 
places by more than forty 
miles . 

Today on the res- 
ervation life is different. 
A new life came into being 
with the organization in 
1933 of the CCC-ID- The Papagos began to rise very slowly from the dust of 
their overgrazed, underwatered desert lands. New life began to stir on the 
more than four thousand square miles of eroding volcanic hills and dry flood 
plains covered with cactus, mesouite and greasewood brush. Two or three hundred 
Indian enrollees began work on projects for erosion control, soil conservation, 
fire sTjqjpression, reduction of overgrazing, water control, conservation, and 
bolsa irrigation. Work also began for the establishment of permanent villages 
which would have an adequate road system connecting them with each other, with 
the agency, and with the outside world. Now there are eleven day schools and 
five parochial schools in scattered villages. 

In a few strategic locations, deep wells have been driven to water, 
with giant windmills pumping the water into 60,000-gallon steel tanks which 
connect with water trou^s from which the cattle can drink during most of the 
year. However, sometimes when there is no rain in a district, there may be no 
grass for feed even though there is water in the tank and cattle die before 
they can get from feed to water. More water needs to be developed, both on the 
stirface and in other deep wells. The typical rainstorm of the region is a short, 
very hard rain, and in order to control this water, check dams, diversion dams, 
and in some places contoinr brush dams, have been bviilt. With these improve- 
ments we expect to be able to increase the tillable areas and to reseed some 
of the now overgrazed and barren flood plains. 

A few graded truck trails have been built to connect principal vil- 
la/?es so that men can be reached quickly in cases where help is needed to fi^t 
grass and brush fires- Such truck trails also serve as arteries for the slowly 
increasing flow of new social, educational and economic life into the comraxmities. 
Some new and better homes are being b\iilt, some of native stone and concrete; 
more of good adobe- Health conditions are slowly improving because of new know- 
ledge, better food and easier access to medical facilities. 

Grass Along The Upper Sid© Of A OCC-ID Dike 

Built To Hold Water From Too Rapid Run-Off 
After The Torrential Summer Rains - 


What has been accomplished is but a small beginning. Much, land is 
still overgrazed and the vegetative cover must somehow be restored. The water 
supply is still sadly meager, and for farm and garden purposes can perhaps 
ne/er be made to serve for more than subsistence pxjrposes for this tribe of 
over six thousand people. The areas that can be farmed are small. Many experi- 
ments in conservation must be attempted in order to discover how best to use and 
improve the present land reso\jrces. Real uses must be found for desert plants. 
There must be experiments in human engineering; to aim at developing healthy, 
decent comnvmity life in this desert country. 

Much of this new life has been made possible because of the work op- 
portunity offered by CCC-ID, which has made possible the dams, the truck trails, 
the bolsa, and the wells. Through working on the various projects, many young 
Papago men have become effective truck drivers and mechanics; they operate bull- 
dozers and grading machines; they build dams with heavy caterpillar-driven ma- 
chinery; they build masonry and concrete structures of many sorts; they also 
work as foremen and clerks. In most of these cases the competent training came 
directly from work they did and the instruction they received on the job. 

New dams to hold irrigation water have made It possible for the Ex- 
tension Division to give effective instruction in subsistence farming and gar- 
dening. Properly located stock water tanks have helped to produce better cat- 
tle and to make instruction in stock management more effective. The cash for 
enrollee wages has meant money for personal and home betterment, resulting in 
more and better food, new conveniences and better health. The qiaality of the 
arts and crafts products made by the women has improved. The cattle and farm 
products are very much better and greatly increased. The CCC-ID has been, and 
still is an opportunity for the betterment of the Papago Indians. There is 
still much to do. 


While March 11, 1939 marked the 115th anniversary of the Indian Of' 
fice, the problem of Indian affairs goes back much further. It goes back, in 
fact, to the very beginning of white colonization. Legislative cognizance of 
the problem was taken yihen the United States, aff a newly independent nation 
was beginning to set up its rudimentary administrative machinery under the 
presidency of George Washington. 

When the War Department was created hy Congress \jnder the A.ct of 
August 7, 1789, the duties assigned to it included those "relative to Indian 
affairs." A. Bureau of Indian Affairs was organized in the War Department on 
March 11, 1824 with Thomas L. McKenny as its chief. By act of July 9, 1832, 
there was created in the War Department the Office of Commissioner of Indian 
Ai'fairs. When the Department of the Interior was created by A^t of March 3, 
1849, the Bureau of Indian Affairs was transferred to it- The first Commis- 
sioner .was Elbert Herring of New York- 



By The Jicerilla Apache Enrollees 

Two old bridges on 
the Navajo River caved in 
last spring. They had stood 
up for a n\Miber of years; in 
fact, much longer than the 
timber contractors expected 
them to, when they built them 
years ago. The CCC-ID was 
called upon to rebuild these 
bridges . 

Plans were made for 

■ , . , I two, two-span truss bridges, 

each 115 feet long, and sttp- 
Apache-Built Bridge ported by three concrete 

piers. The CCC-ID employees 
immediately set about to dig for foundations. However, in a week or two, the 
hi^ water drove the enrollees out and the work had to be postponed until most 
of the snow had melted and run off. When the water receded work was again tak- 
en up and the first structure was successfully completed this fall. All the 
timber used in the making of this bridge was cut by the CCC-ID. 

The piers of the second bridge got tinder way late in the fall; but 
before we could run concrete^ below-zero weather was upon us. The pits were ex- 
cavated, forms set in, and power p\imps were put into operation for removing the 
water from inside the forms. On the morning that we were planning to run the 
first pier it was found that a tremendous flow of ice had piled xvp against the 
cofferdams and raised the water level in the river several feet. The water 
poured into the pit so fast that the pioraps could not handle it . 

It now became evident that we had to use an entirely different method 
for placing the concrete under six feet of water, or take a chance on losing 
all the work done thus far. A meeting was held and it was agreed upon to make 
a conduit, through which the concrete could be placed under water. A 12" x 12" 
wooden pipe was ma-de ■ The end of the pipe was placed within six inches of the 
bottom and concrete was forced under the water in six one-inch layers xintil the 
top of the water was reached, then concrete could be placed in the ordinary way 

When each pier was completed, the problem of keeping Jack Frost at a 
respectable distance for several days was our next problem. The minute the 
piers were completed, a frame structure was thrown around and over the piers. 
This structxire was covered completely with tenting so as to form a heat retain- 
ing compartment. Next, oil barrels were made into oil stoves in which fires 
were constantly kept b\xrning for three days and four ni^ts. Three shifts of 


firemen were kept on the job during this time and all piers were successftilly 
completed. Hot water was used for concrete mix and some of the a^regate was 
heated. The Apache boys were intensely interested in this work and they learned 
much about concrete work dxiring the process. 

When the temperat\are went so low that it was impossible to work, the 
Apaches built big bonfires and lectures were given and classes were held. 


The following circular, addressed to "the female einployees of Osage 
Agency" at Pawhuska, Oklahoma and dated 1875 , was recently discovered and trans- 
mitted to the Indian Office ty Miss Lilliaji Mathews, at present a member of the 
Osage Indian Agency staff and a sister of John Joseph Mathews, a tribal council- 
man- The order, as signed by Isaac Kiebson, U. S. Indian Agent, seems to re- 
quire very little explanation. The text follows: 

"While here you cannot avoid being regarded by the Osage 
women and girls as examples for them in conduct^ conversation and 
dress . 

"In view of that fact how modest and unaffected your con- 
duct should be - conversation, pure and truthful - dress, comfortable 
and tidy and clean - your hair neatly done up - avoiding excessive 
and uncouth decorations of person, which their uncultivated tastes 
leads them to admire. Useless jewelry - chignons - superfluous hat, 
overskirt and dress trimmings - gaudy colored garments - corsets - 
powder and paint for faces sho\ild be dispensed with and hereafter 
avoided while in this Service. 

"If the health or liberty of anyone is damaged by the ob- 
servance of the foregoing, they are advised to seek employment else- 


So many hiindredd of requests have poured in for copies of the recent- 
ly published pamphlet about Indians that its authors and sponsors have been com- 
pelled to make plans for printing an additional supply. Individuals and groups, 
civic organizations, schools and many others have flooded the authors with re- 
quests. Many Indian Service units have placed orders for large ntimbere of these 
booklets, but the largest and perhaps the most surprising order has come from 
outside the Service. It is from the public schools of Denver, Colorado, who in 
one request, have asked for 960 copies for use in the classrooms. 


By Philip S. Byrnes, CCC-ID Enf^ineering Staff 
Pine Ridge Agency, South Dakota 

A Portion Of Red Shirt Table Development 
As Viev/ed From The South 

Red Shirt Table is 
in a beautiful, scenic part 
of the Pine Ridge Reservation 
in South Dakota. From the 
top of the plateau known as 
the Red Shirt Table, a scene 
of awe-inspiring beauty meets 
the eye. There, stretching 
away in the distance, can be 
seen a beautiful formation 
in the midst of the Badlejids 
area. It is impossible to 
describe the beauty wrought 
here by natvire. The view 
from the Red Shirt Table 
Plateau is one of the most 
beautiful seen from any of 
ovir main highways. From this point, the foothills of the Black Hills with 
its pines and blue haze can also be seen, and looking toward the horizon on 
the north, one can see Mount Rushmore. Traveling down twelve miles farther, 
we find the Red Shirt Table Development on the south side in a big bend of 
the Cheyenne R iver . 

In the early gold rush days of the Black Hills, so the story goes, 
a wagon caravan coming West lost the main traveled route throvi^ Nebraska, 
tiirned North and came through this territory. The hills were so steep and 
rourfi in places that at times it becajne necessary to take the wagons apart and 
haul them piece by piece with ropes and reassemble them again so that they 
mif^t go on. Not all of these people reached their destination; some were 
left behind as evidenced by markings of graves on rocks in the canyons. 

After the Pine Ridge Reservation was set aside for the Sioux Indians, 
a Sioux by the name of Red Shirt moved to that area where he lived alone for 
some time. Grad\ially other friends and relatives came there to establish homes 
until the group numbered about twelve families. The primary attraction of the 
area to the early settlers was the good grazing and water for their livestock, 
together with an abundance of good game hunting -deer, rabbits, grouse, and 
so forth. 

The social activities of this little group consisted of games, sing- 
ing and dancing. It is said that the health conditions of these people were 
good. This fact remains true to a large degree today. One member remarked 


that he felt this was due to their isolation in 
a high altitude with an abundajice of fresh air. 

The orif^inal group was increased to 
twenty-eifiit f nmilies . Throu^Ji their amhition 
they hnve tried to maintain self-stiff iciency 
with their meager subsistence, income and be- 
longinfrs. They have hoped that through some 
source they would become self-sustaining, with 
better hames, educational facilities for their 
children, some livestock and better farm fa- 
cilities so that they might enjoy the comforts 
of a home. Today they are beginning to realize 
a long-awaited hope for a brighter and happier 
future . 

Until 1935 their livelihood was de- 
rived mainly throu^ the leasing of their lands 
to white individual ranchers • The severe 
droue^t at this time made it necessary for the 
stoclcmen to remove their cattle from this area- 
This left the people without any sotorce of in- 
come from their land. 

In 1936 the people decided to organ- 
ize as a commtinity to establish some source of 
livelihood. They organized a stock association 
known as the Red Shirt Table Development Asso- 
ciation. One of the chief objectives of this association was to regain the use 
of their land. There are now nineteen members in the association. They began 
with forty-one head of group-owned cattle, along with the few head of horses 
and Cattle which w^re privately-owned. 

In 1937, they started a turkey enterprise, piirchasing 600 turkey 
poiJlts through a government loan. With this enterprise hardships were encoun- 
tered. About two days after the txirkeys were brought home a hurricane swept 
the locality and killed over 200, but their enthusiasm was not dampened. 

Determined to continue with this enterprise, regardless of their loss, 
they purchased 1,000 more po-ults in 1938. From this, 850 turkeys were raised 
for market, bringing a profit of $500.00 to cover their previous losses. 

There are approximately four townships in this district, which are 
excellent for stock use in winter and summer grazing. The southern portion 
of the district can be used for summer range. As winter approaches the stock 
can be taken to the north end where there are hills and shelter for late fall, 
and trees for winter protection along the river. / along the river and to 
the north and east there are hay flats where an abundance of hay can be put vcp 
for winter feed. 

A Badland Scene Sn Route To 
Red Shirt Table Development 


In the plan of re- 
habilitation, the river hot- 
tom area has been reserved 
for homes and gardens. In 
the surveying and laying out 
of the site for the new 
buildings, the thought in 
mind was to plan for a town- 
site, and not for just a 
huddle of houses . There are 
nine new homes neatly planned 
from the standpoint of maxi- 
m\am room space and low cost 
construction. They have 
three conveniently planned 
rooms with attractive wide 
windows. There is also a new canning kitchen, dairy barn, new modern poultry 
house, and a water system for the use of all the families. These have been 
constructed with money obtained from the rehabilitation loan fund- Immediate- 
ly west of the home sites, several lots have been reserved for the construction 
of churches and other community centers. 

Turkey Project 

The school building is a modern structiire with a full basement. It 
will be equipped with modern facilities for academic and classroom work, home 
economics and extra-curricular activities. There is also an auditorium iriiich 
will be used by the commvmity as a civic center, and for all general meetings, 
as well as social activities. 

The structure and development of this school will insure the future 
education of the children so that they may become self -siqjporting and respect' 
able citizens. A.t present there are fifty children attending the school on 
the flat. They are looking forward to the time when they can move into the 
new building which will provide more space for their school projects. These 
projects include home economics and sewing clubs for the girls; turkey, calf 
and goat clubs f or the boys . 

Within the approximate 

two square miles of river bottom 
reserved for homes there will be 
about 135 acres of land favorable 
for irrigation. Ttie soil scientists 
have made tests of the geological 
formation and soil types of this 
irrigation site, and have found 
the soil favorable for producing 
crops adapted to truck farming. The 
water for irrip-ation will be pumped 
from the Cheyenne River and alfalfa 
will be planted on part -of the ir- 
rigation plot which will be used 
for winter feed for stock. Garden 


plots will be laid ajid root cellars will be provided for storing. This far- 
seeing program and development will insure a secure future for these people 
from a social and economic standpoint. The future development of the Red Shirt 
Table Community rests with the people, to work together and to cooperate with 
their sponsors. 


The Indian Office basket ball team, composed of all -Indian members, 
captured the Interior Department Recreational Association championship on March 
13 and 14, by defeating the P.W.A. quintet in successive games by the scores of 
33 - 22 and 47 -31. The team was composed of the following members, shown 
above : 

Back row, left to right: Hardin (Winnebago); Ironteeth (Sioux); Greene 
(Seneca); Cornelius (Oneida); Bennett (Oneida). 

Front row: Walker (Modoc); Ray (Chickasaw); John Croke, coach; Massey 
(Choctaw); Attahvich (Comanche). 



Three jovng Indians - one a student tailor, another a carpenter's 
helper, and a third, a shoemaker's ^prentice, painted the murals for the gal- 
lery of the Cornplanters of the Southwest, one of the eight halls depicting 
Indian cxaltural groups in the presentation of the United States Office of In- 
dian Affairs at the G-olden Gate International Exposition at San Francisco in 

The oldest of the three - Joseph Duran, a Tewa Indian from Tesuque 
Pueblo in New Mexico, and 24 years of age - some day hopes to earn his living 
by making clothes. Joseph painted in strikingly vivid colors seven miorals, 
four of which were based on scenes from the annual Pueblo corn dance of the 
summer season and three selected from the winter dance ceremony . 

Ignacio Moquina, 18 years of age, grad\iated from the .Indian Vocation- 
al School in Santa Fe , New Mexico a year ago after having completed co\arses in 
shoemaking. His murals show three post\ires of his tribesmen in the crow dance, 
an aut\uimal ceremony performed to fri^ten crows from the extensive Pueblo 
cornfields . 

A Hopi Indian, Charles Loloma, 18 years of age, executed three wall 
paintings - an eagle, a buffalo and a corn Kachina, or messenger of the gods - 
descending on Hopiland early in the year. Charles is a Junior in the Indian 
high school at Phoenix, Arizona, irtiere he is studying to become a carpenter. 

M\iral Of Buffalo .Hunt By Calvin Larvie 
(Note: This mural is sitxiatcd in The Hall o-f the Hunters at the San Francisco 
International Exposition and fills the main wall opposite the entrance to this 
Hall. Mr. Larvie is a Siovix Indian- ) 




"Encourage a man to use his own talents, show him the ways he can do 
80, let him then attack his problem in his own fashion, and you will have made 
a contribution to sxjod citizenship. That, in substance, is the coxxrse the Fed- 
eral Government is pursuing with respect to its Indian population," said Harold 
L. Ickes, Secretary of the Interior after he had seen a preview of the exhibit 
of the United States Bureau of Indian Affairs at the Golden Gate International 

"Until very recent years we have been leading the Indian by the hand, 
whether along economic, social or political paths, postponing the day when he 
might learn to stand on his own feet and, at the same time, encoviraging him to 
accept the false assvunption that the Government would forever keep him in lead- 
ing strings. He had already reached the point where protective paternalism was 
bringing diminishing returns when the direction was changed abruptly by John 
Collier, the present Commissioner of Indian Affairs. Some of the results of 
this change of direction are s\iggested in o\ir presentation here at the Exposi- 
tion, notably in the field of Indian arts and crafts. 

"We were convinced, when considering the advisability of participat- 
ing in this Exposition, that the people of the United States had little, if any 
knowledge of the beauty and utility of the things Indians made, to say nothing 
of having any idea of his c\iltural heritage. Consider the Navajo riog. Where 
else in the world can one purchase such a product? It is colorful, it wears - 
almost literally - like iron; into its texture is woven a whole tradition of 
fine workmanship and today it is protected by a trademark carrying the guarantee 
of the United States Government. Similarly, hand-wrought silver, pottery, bas- 
ketware, and other Indian-fabricated goods offer discriminating buyers a selec- 
tion of sviperbly fashioned, unique and truly American articles. 

"Two years ago Congress authorized the establishment of an Indian 
Arts and Crafts Board whose purpose it would be to encourage the production of, 
and to seek a wider market for genuine Indian goods- Our presentation at the 
Exposition, under the direction of Rene d'Hornoncourt, General MaJiager of the 
Arts and Crafts Board, will demonstrate the contribution being made by that 
Board to the economic independence of thousands of Indians- From all parts of 
the United States, including Alaska, there have been assembled at the Exposition 
representative products of Indian art and craft - original, genuine, useful - 
many of them strikingly beautiful in texture and design. Unless we are con5)lete- 
ly mistaken, thousands of visitors will carry away a new conception of the dig- 
nity and the utility of Indian-made products, and this will bring closer the 
economic stability of OTir Indian population. 

"While we believe that our exhibits will unquestionably extend the 
market for Indian-made goods, and thereby broaden the base of Indian income, we 


havf! not stopped at arts and crafts in seeking, as speedily as possible, an 
end to the need for Government aid or svrpervis ion . It would have been physical- 
ly impossible to demonstrate at the Exposition the magnificent work that is be- 
ing done in the field of Indian education and health, in soil conservation and 
land utilization, in self-government, in credit and cooperative enterprises, 
and in improvement in personnel. Recognizing the limitations of our exhibit 
possibilities, we are emphasizing what has been done, and, more important, what 
can be done in the arts and crafts field toward restoring the Indian to that 
freedom and seciirity which are no less significant elements of his heritage 
than the skill of his craftsmanship." 

« * « « * « « 


More people than the entire population of a medium-sized city visited 
the Exposition of Conservation in the Museum of the Department of the Interior 
during the first year of its operation, Secretary Harold L. Ickes has been ad- 
vised by Ned J. Burns, Chief of the Museum Division, National Park Service. 

Since its doors were first opened on March 9, 1938, more than 120,000 
men, women and children from all sections of the United States - and some from 
foreign lands - have viewed the unusual collection of spectacular dioramas, col- 
orful pictures, out-of-the-ordinary specimens, and priceless historical docu- 
ments assembled on the first floor of the New Interior Building in Washington, 
D. C. 

Attendance records show that visitors from Liverpool, England; Shang- 
hai, China; New Zealand, and Germany were among those inspecting the exhibits 
which afford a graphical portrayal of the Department's work in promoting the 
preservation of natural resoxirces in the United States. 

With the addition of a collection of carved ivory handicraft from 
Alaska and a picturization of the field for development of recreational facil- 
ities in state park areas, the e3chibition presents a striking illustration of 
the activities in the various agencies of the Department. 

The Museum is open to the public free of charge each week day from 
9 to 4:30, and until 1:00 on Sat^jrdays, and special tours for groups of students 
may be arranged upon application to J. Paul Hudson, Acting Curator of the Museum. 

«^ o o 



One Of The Exhibits A,t The Gallup Indian Ceremonial, ku^st, 1938. 
(Every object in this room was hand-made Irj Pueblo Indians) 

In conformity with the government's program of stimulating interest 
in authentic Indian-made goods, and in cooperation with the United Pueblos 
Agency and those traders who are dealing with goods made in the Pueblo A.rea, 
a unified exhibit at the Indian Inter-Tribal Ceremonial was held at Gallup, 
New Mexico, last Au^st. Its theme was the useftilness of Pueblo arts and 
crafts in the modern home. 

The center of this display was a model room, produced under the su- 
pervision of the Indian ilrts and Crafts Board, and erected by the carpentry, 
silversmi thing and weaving departments of the Indian schools and by the crafts- 
men in the Pueblos . 

This type of presentation of Indiaji goods was designed to create a 
new market for Indian products. Already many orders have been received from 
private individuals for products of the sajne character as those displayed, and 
certain museums and institutions have made plans for similar presentations. 

At the San Francisco International Exposition also, model rooms for 
each cultural area will be exhibited, demonstrating adaptability and use in 
modern settings of the accessories of each particular Indian ^voxrp . 


k Lkwrm. LOOKS at the American Indian , past and present 

Note: The following speech was delivered by Samuel J. Flickinger, As- 
sistant Chief Co\insel, Office of Indian Affairs, on Febniary 18, 1939, before 
the members of the Order of Indian Wars of the United States, held at the Aray 
and Navy Club in Washington, D. C., on the occasion of their annual banquet. 
This was the first time this essentially military g;roxjp had ever entertained a 
speaker from the Indian Service. 

It has been estimated by some historians that at the time Columbus 
discovered America there were approximately 350,000 Indians in the area which 
is now the United States. Others have estimated that this number reached 
900,000. At present, there are approximately 373,000 Indians within the United 
States, Including some 30,000 Indians and natives residing In Alaska- The lat- 
ter figure constitutes about one-half of the total population of that territory. 

The State of Oklahoma has far more Indians residing within Its bound- 
aries than any other state - approximately 96,000. Arizona ranks second In or- 
der with about 46,000 Indians. Third in order is New Mexico with over 35,000. 

The State of South Dakota is next In line with over 27,000 Indians 
and California follows closely with approximately 24,000. The other five states 
with over 10,000 Indians each, are Montana, Minnesota, Washington, Wisconsin and 
North Dakota. 

Of the enrolled or registered Indians at some 250 reservations and 
jurisdictions, over 60 per cent are full-bloods. The mixed- bloods consist of 
less than 40 per cent of the total. 

The Constitution of the United States vests in the Congress of the 
United States the power, gimong other things, to regulate commerce with foreign 
nations, and among the several states and with the Indian tribes . Among the 
duties imposed vcpon the War Department when it was created on August 7, 1789, 
was that of handling Indian affairs. Congress on J\ily 9, 1832, specifically 
created in the War Department, the Office of the Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
the holder of which was subject to the Secretary of WaT and the President of 
the United States in the direction and management of all Indian affairs and of 
all matters arising out of Indian relations. 

At that time, due to the treatment meted out to the Indians by some 
of the white pioneers, the Indian in general had come to mistrust most of the 
whites in all of their actions and felt that the only way they could protect 
themselves and their hunting gro\ands from the Invading whites was by force. 
This condition led to the belief that most of the Indians were savage and war- 
like, and accordingly, It was necessary to use force at all times to protect 
the white pioneers from the Indians residing within the territory the pioneers 
were invading. It was natural, therefore, for Congress to continue the control 
of Indian matters under the military department of the Government. 

Congress by an Act of March 3, 1849, created the Department of the 
Interior, to which the Bureau of Indian Affairs was transferred. ?y this Act 


the control of Indian matters passed from the military to the civil "branch of 
the Government. Sections 441 and 463 of the Revised Statutes of the United 
States provide that the Secretary of the Interior shall he charged with the 
supervision of public business relating to the Indians and that the Commissioner 
of Indian Affairs under his direction and agreeable to such regulations as the 
President of the United States may prescribe, shall have the management of all 
Indian affairs and all matters arising out of Indian relations. 

Since the transfer to the civil authorities of the Federal Government 
took place, innmerable acts of Congress have been passed until at the present 
time the Indian Bureau finds itself meshed in a maze of laws, some of which are 
archaic . 

Originally the Indians roamed over the vast territory embraced with- 
in this country without restraint except as one tribe may have encroached \3p0n 
another. Rapidly increased population caused expansion over the entire area 
of the country and resulted in restricting the areas over which the several 
tribes of Indians roamed. Treaties wero entered into with different Indian 
tribes by representatives of the lAiited States, many of which were ratified by 
Congress wherein provisions were made defining specific reservations for the 
particular tribe or tribes to reside \q)on. In many instances these treaty res- 
ervations were subsequently reduced in size liy further treaties or by acts of 
Congress to meet the demands of the encroaching white race. Often the best 
part of the Indian reservation was thus taken from the Indians in order to pro- 
vide farming areas for the whites. 

The right of occupancy of areas liy Indian tribes was recognized in 
a degree by the United States. The treaties in diminishing the areas over 
which the Indians formerly roamed, and confining them to specific diminished 
reservations, naturally created new problems. The reduced or diminished area 
of a reservation to which a particiJlar tribe or tribes of Indians were confined 
under a treaty or act of Congress was known as the diminished reservation, while 
the area formerly occupied by such tribe or tribes which was relinquished to the 
United States by the Indians become known as the ceded reservation. Congress on 
March 3, 1871 decreed that thereafter no more treaties would be entered into 
with any Indian tribe. 

The Indian reservations were held in common by all the members of the 
particular tribe or tribes residing thereon. In some instances, treaties pro- 
vided for the allotment of the lands embraced within the reservation to the in- 
dividiaal members. Some of the treaties specifically provided that certain chief 
or chiefs should have set aside for his or their use a partic\jlar number of acres 
of land. 

On February 8, 1887 Congress enacted what is known as the General Al- 
lotment Act. This Act provided for the allotment of the lands of the reserva- 
tions to the individual members and the issuance of patents to the Indians, which 
recited that the United States would hold the lands so allotted to the Individual 
Indians in trust for a period of 26 years at which time a fee patent would be 
issued to the allottees for their allotted lands, free of all encumbrances. This 
Act was amended on several occasions to take care of needs which become apparent 
as time went on. The original legislation provided that upon the issuance of 
the original patent the Inaians would become citizens of the United States. Sub- 


sequently tiy amendment the ri^t of citizenship was deferred until after the 
fee patent had "been issued. This change was due largely to a misunderstanding 
as to the real legal significance. At that time it was the belief that ward- 
ship and citizenship were incompatible. This theory, however, was exploded ly 
the Sijpreme Court of the United States in the case of Brader v. James, reported 
in 286 U. S. 88, wherein the Court held that the granting of citizenship to 
the Indians was not inconsistent with the right of Congress to continue to ex- 
ercise its authority restricting the alienation of lands "by the Indians \ander 
legislation adequate to that end. In the case of U. S. v. Noble 237 U. S. 74, 
the Court said, "Guardianship of the United States continues notwithstanding 
the citizenship conferred on the individual Indian allottees." 

The Indians were not aliens and could not be nattiralized under the 
general naturalization laws dealing with the nattiralization of aliens. They 
could only become citizens of the United States by specific act of Congress. 
That body by the Act of June 2, 1924 provided "That all non-citizened Indians 
born within the territorial limits of the Ifeited States be, and they are here- 
by declared to be citizens of the United States; provided that the granting of 
such citizenship shall not in any manner inrpair or otherwise affect the ri^t 
of any Indian to tribal or other property." Thus it will be seen that all In- 
dians born within the territorial limits of the United States are now citizens 
of the United States. 

While on this subject it may be well to point out that most of the 
Indians have the right of suffrage in the particular state in which they reside. 
Some states, however, such as Arizona and California prevent the Indians, who 
are wards of the United States, from voting by providing that certain persons, 
naming those under guardianship, are not eligible to vote. In the State of 
Arizona the statutes specifically name Indians as being excluded. The consti- 
tutionality of such legislation has not been determined definitely. 

Under the General Allotment A,ct and amendments thereto, the reserva- 
tions were divided into individual allotments, the Indian becoming a restricted 
owner of that part of the reservation edlotted to him. 

The guardianship of the Iftiited States over the Indian has to do large- 
ly with the Indian's land or property or matters arising by reason of such prop- 
erty. Title 25, U.S.C. Section 175 requires the United States attorneys within 
the several states to represent the Indians in all suits and law and equity. This 
law has been interpreted by the Department of Justice to apply principally to 
cases involving or growing out of the Indian trust property. In recent years 
that Department has been more liberal in its interpretation of this law and 
has handled a greater variety of cases for, and on behalf of the Indians, look- 
ing to and protecting their interests even when the action did not affect trust 
or restricted property. 

In the absence of Congressional enactment courts are without juris- 
diction, to try an alleged offense committed by one Indian a^iainst another on 
his person or property within Indian country or an Indian reservation. The Su- 
preme Court of the United States on December 17, 1883, in the case of Ex Parte 
Crow Dog held that the First District Court of Dakota was without jurisdiction 
to find or try the indictment against Crow Dog, a Sioiox Indian, who had been 
convicted by that Co\irt for the murder of am Indian of the Brule Sioux Band; 


that the conviction and sentence were void and the imprisonment illegal, because 
as stated by the Cotirt: 

"To give to the clauses in the treaty of 1868 and the agreement 
of 1877 effect, so as to uphold the jurisdiction exercised in this 
case, would be to reverse in this instance the general policy of the 
G-overnment towards the Indians, as declared in many statutes and 
treaties, and recognized in many decisions of this coTJrt , from the 
beginning to the present time. To justify such a departure, in such 
a case, requires a clear expression of the intention of Congress, 
and that we have not been able to find-" (Ex Parte Crow Dog, 109 
U. S. 556-572.) 

The decision in the Crow Dog case resulted in Congress enacting on 
March 3, 1885 what is commonly referred to as the Seven Major Indian Crimes kct . 
This legislation covered the crimes of murder, manslau^ter, rape, assult with 
intent to kill, arson, bvirglary and larceny. There was added to this list "ty 
the Act of March 3, 1909, "assault with dangerous weapon" and by the Act of 
June 28, 1932, incest and robbery were added- Any of these crimes, therefore, 
coaanitted by an Indian against another Indian or hia property on an Indian Res- 
ervation is subject to suit in the Federal courts- 

In 1887 the total area of Indian land within their reservations was 
approximately 137,000,000 acres- The General Allotment Act of 1887 was passed 
in fxartherance of the policy to break up Indian comm\anity land holdings by al- 
loting them and creating individual property ownership, with the view of thus 
absorbing the Indians into the general population. In most instances while the 
carrying out of the policy changed the mode and method of living of the Indians 
by making them individual land owners and attempting to make them agricultural- 
ists, limited funds of the individual Indians and with very little and woefully 
inadequate appropriations to aid them in accomplishing this change resulted 
largely in failure of the purpose- No provision was made to provide credit to 
those Indians who desired to progress and owing to the inability to pledge 
their property as credit, outside credit was usually not available to them. 
School, health, medical and dental aid, and other necessary assistance was 
limited by insufficient appropriations by Congress with the result that the In- 
dians in. the main were tmable to cope successfully with the changed conditions 
in which they found themselves. 

The death r&te of the Indian was high. Many of the allotments made 
to individual Indians were never utilized by the individuals themselves. Upon 
the death of the allottee, in many instances, years lapsed before definite de- 
termination of the ownership to the deceased allottee's land was made- The 
State courts in some instances ass\amed to take jurisdiction in determining 
heirs of deceased Indians- Ity the Act of June 25, 1910, Congress vested in 
the Secretary of the Interior the exclusive power to ascertain and determine 
the legal heirs of deceased Indians to their trust or restricted property. The 
1910 Act was amended in 1913 by vesting in the Secretary the power to approve 
Indian wills • 

Many allotments after the death of the allottee and the death of suc- 
cesr.ive heirs passed into ownership of many individual Indian heirs. For ex- 


ample, a 40-acre tract of land may have as maiiy as 200 heirs making it virtiially 
Impracticable to utilize the land. Sach heir's share being exceedingly small, 
many of the heirs will not bother with it, so often beneficial use of the land 
is not made. This sitiiation complicates exceedingly the administration of the 

This coniplicated sit"aation in the past, plus the desire of non-Indians 
to acquire good farm land belonging to the Indians, resulted in the sale of many 
of these allotments to non-Indians- This desire of the white man also resxilted 
in many instances, in the further extinguishment of the Indian title to his land. 
After the allotments had been made, acts of Congress provided for the disposal 
of the so-called surplus or unallotted Indian lands. The \jnallotted lands were 
appraised and thrown open to entry to non-Indians at the appraised price, the 
Indians receiving the value placed on the lands less cost of administration. 
Throu^ these several medi\ims, much of the large areas, approximating 137,000,000 
acres of land, passed rapidly out of Indian ownership. 

From 1887, the year in which the General Allotment Act was passed, up 
to 1932, the average yearly diminution of Indian title in lands was 2,000,000 
acres. In 1933 there remained 29,481,685 acres in tribal Indian ownership and 
about 19,000,000 acres of Indian lands allotted to the individual Indians were 
still in a trust status held by the United States for the individvial Indian al- 
lottees or their heirs, or a total approximating 49,000,000 acres. At this rate 
of disposition of Indian lands only a few years separated the time when all In- 
dians wo\ild be landless, and to think, at one time this entire covintry was theirs. 
(Because of the length of this article, it was found necessary to divide the 
text into two installments. The second installment will appear in an early 
i ssue . ) 



Recent visitors to the 77ashington Office have included the following: 
Charles L. Berry, Superintendent, New York Agency, New York; ALida Bowler, Sv^per- 
intendent, Carson Agency, Nevada; Fred W. Boyd, St^jerintendent, Fort Belknap 
Agency, Montana; Charles L. Ellis, Superintendent, Osage Agency, Oklahoma; E. 
P-eeseman Fryer, Superintendent, Navajo Agency, Arizona; Charles L. Graves, Su- 
perintendent, Blackfeet Agency, Montana; Theodore B. Hall, Stgjerintendent , Sells 
Agency, Arizona. 

Other visitors have been J. L. Finley, Probate Attorney, Five Civi- 
lized Tribes, Oklahoma, and Captain George M. Nyce, Regional Forester, Great 
Plains Area. 

The visiting delegations and visitors were: Cheyenne River Agency 
(South Dakota): Thomas Eagle Staff, Lioke Gilbert, John Little Cloud and Daniel 
Powell. Osa ge Agency ( Oklahoma) : John Abbot, Mr. and Mrs. Bascus, Louis Denoya, 
Harry Kohpay , Mr. and Mrs. Fred Lookout, John Joseph Mathews, Edgar McCarthy, 
Lee Pappan, Frank Quinton, Mr. and Mrs. William Pryor , Ed Simpson, David Ware, 
and John Wagoshie. Sells Agency (Arizona): Pete Blaine, Martin Maristo, and 
Henry Throssell. 





On Many Fronts The Battle Against The Ravages 
Of Man's Mistakes Is Being Ceaselessly Waged. 
Science Is Now Seeking To Produce A New Type 
Of Sheep To Fit The Arid Wastes Of Navajoland. 

(Photo by Harris & Ewing) 

Navajo rugs, produced under laboratory experimental methods, asing 
wool of several varieties and processed in different ways, were recently "brou^t 
to Washington, D. C. from the Southwestern Range and Sheepbreeding Laboratory 
on the Navajo Indian Reservation. These small rugs, each representing a partic- 
ular combination of factors, were sewn together and placed in the cafeteria of 
the Department of the Interior for experimental purposes as explained below. 
The accompanying photograph shows one of these sajnples being inspected by In- 
dian Commissioner John Collier and two yo\mg Indians, Russell E. Prophet and 
Bernice Bonga, employed in the Washington Office. On the extreme left is Mr. 
A. C. Cooley, Indian Service Director of Extension, whose division is partici- 
pating in the experimental work. 


Navajo rugs of the future will owe a debt to the hurrying feet of the 
thousands of Interior Department employees who eat their Itmches in the cafe- 
teria of the new Interior Building in Washington, D. C. 

On February 18, \mder the supervision of Oscar L. Chapman, Assistant 
Secretary of the Interior ejid John Collier, Commissioner of Indian Affairs, 
Navajo rugs were placed on the floors of the Interior Department cafeteria* 
Dr. J. I. Hardie in charge of the wool laboratory at the Beltsville, Maryland, 
Experimental Station and Mr. A.. C. Cooley, Director of Extension and Industry 
were the speakers for the occasion. 

It is a far cry from the wind-swept semi-arid lands of the Navajo 
Indians in Arizona and New Mexico to the Interior Office Building, but not too 
far to prevent the Washington employees, during their lunch periods, from per- 
forming a vital service to the Navajo Indiana. Sections of Navajo rugs, pro- 
d\iced under varying conditions and containing wool of varying degrees of qxoal- 
ity taken from animals of several types, have been placed on the floor of the 
cafeteria where the traffic is heaviest. In this way, the experts who are 
working to improve the q\iality of Navajo wool and Navajo rugs, believe they 
can obtain the equivalent of years of hard wear in a much shorter space of time- 

All this is only one small part of a scientific enterprise designed 
to establish a "Navajo sheep" whose output of wool and mutton will be so im- 
proved in qiiantity and quality that its resultant effect on Navajo econoncr will 
do much to offset the increasing depletion of the Navajo lends. And thereby 
hangs a tale. 

Experiments which may have a far-reaching effect on the entire wool 
Industry of the West are being carried on at the Southwestern Razige and Sheep 
Breeding Laboratory on the Navajo Indian Reservation. Here sheep breeders and 
wool specialists are drawing on the latest devices in breeding and wool in- 
vestigation to develop a wool suitable to the peculiar requirements of the 
Navajos. The work in the laboratory is under the direction of John M. Cooper. 

Sheep and wool men generally are watching the Navajo e^qjeriments be- 
cause of the keen competition between various fibers to meet the newer demands 
in the textile industry and because scientists are applying breeding principles 
and newer methods for studying wool quality to produce a made-to-order type of 
wool for a specific use. 

For several centuries the Navajo Indians raised sheep descended from 
strains bro\aght into this country by the Spaniards. Those old Navajo sheep 
have both their strong and weak points. They are so hardy that they run on 
the open ranges winter and summer and live entirely off of native vegetation. 
Their wool is a combination of an outer coat of coarse fibers 10 or 11 inches 
long, with a finer mdercoat similar to wild fur-bearing animals. Much of the 
wool of that type has a low shrinkage and is easy to card, spin and weave by 
hand - and makes a high-grade rug for which the Navajos are world-famous. Those 
old Navajo sheep, however, produce a small crop of wool. Under the best condi- 
tions, they produce only about four pounds per head as against an average of 
ei^t pounds per head for all sheep in the United States. Their wool usually 
commands a low price on the Eastern market. They are also poor meat animals. 


At various times during the past 70 years on the Navajo Reservation, 
rams of improved hreeds such as the Ramhouillet have been crossed with the old 
Navajo sheep . The crosses have produced "better uutton and higher grades of 
commercial wool, but the wool for the most pai't makes a rougher, knottier and 
generally poorer rug than the original Navajo wool. 

The Navajos use only about one-fifth of their wool for weaving rugs 
and sell the largest part of their crop as commercial wool. The part that the 
Indian wotaen card, spin and weave into rugs helps provide a small, but fairly 
steady' income throuise^iout the year, ai'ter the money from the market wool is 
gone- The Navajo rug income is estimated at $360,000 per year. 

The Indian Office has called on the sheep and wool specialists of 
the United States Department of Agricxilture to help develop strains possessing 
more suito.ble wool, a better mutton carcass and still retaining the hardy char- 
acteristics of the old Navajo sheep. 

Three years ago a flock of 800 Navajo ewes was obtained at the labor- 
atory. From this foundation stock, liy the use of proper breeding methods, it 
is hoped to develop strains superior for these p\arposes to those now existing. 
In this program there will be introduced, through hybridization, some of the 
best characteristics of improved breeds such as the Rambouillet , Romney, Cor- 
riedale and Columbia, while retaining in the improved strains the hardiness 
and other desirable features of the Navajo stock. 

A.S the breeders produce new strains of sheep, the wool experts are 
bringing into play the new equipment and methods they have developed to deter- 
mine quickly the fineness and uniformity of a large number of samples of wool- 
The wool in the old Navajo rugs and blankets is being studied to learn more 
about the qualities of wools suitable for hand weaving. The wool from each 
sheep is analyzed to give the breeders more definite information about the 
q\iality of the various wools as a guide in breeding for most desirable wool 
and also a wool which will command a hi^er price in the wool trade. 

Navajo sheep are "improved" or "semi-improved" because the old Ori- 
ginal type is more or less diluted with importations. The original type which 
was the result of generation after generation of the survival of a sheep that 
could make its living on the semi-arid ranges of the reservation was a coarse- 
wooled, light-shearing type with a "streamlined" build carrying little mutton. 
Old Navajo sheep possess extreme hardihood, are good mothers and their wool is 
suited to the hand-carding, spinning and weaving process of home rug and blan- 
ket manufacture . 

Because of the relatively low return in wool and mutton, efforts were 
started many years ago to improve the production of Navajo sheep by introducing 
rams from improved, hi^er -producing types, but the attempt failed because fa- 
cilities were not then available for a thoro\:igh analysis of the situation and 
no accurate knowledge was obtained regarding the type of sheep needed. 


Now at the Navajo sheep lahoratory men peer through microscopes while 
various types of sheep gambol over the 18,000 acres set aside for experimental 
range. A Navajo woman sits at her loom in the laboratory, weaving into artis- 
tic patterns new fibers that some day may revolutionize the great Navajo rug 
industry and treble the tribal income from wool and mutton. And in Washington, 
the cafeteria of the Interior Department is playing its own special part in 
the drama. 


Probably the oldest Amer i can -made blanket in the world today, still 
in one piece, stands in a glass frame in the State Musetun at the University of 
Arizona in Tucson. 

Made 700 or 800 years a^o by prehistoric Pueblo dwellers of Sycamore 
Canyon in the northern part of Arizona, the blanket is not a thing of rare 
beauty, but is considered excellent evidence of an advanced stage of craftsman- 
ship among the prehistoric Indians. 

The blanket is approximately five feet square. It is finely woven 
of cotirse cotton thread and was apparently sized with com starch or diluted 
pinon glue before a slnqple swastika design was painted on it with thin black 
paint. The design is clear and well-defined. 

It was found by C R. King of Clarkdale, Arizona, wrapped eiroxind a 
skeleton in a cave house of the t^jper Verde Valley. Along with the burial of- 
ferings - bows and arrows, baskets, bowls and a medicine box - it was brou^t 
to the State Museum where it serves as an object of study for the arts and in- 
dustries class in the Department of Anthropology and for exhibition. 

Dr. E. W. Haury, head of that department, reports that only one other 
such blanket is known to be in existence, still wrapped aro\and a mummy in the 
American Musem. Reprinted from The Southwest Tovarist News . 



Health Workers /Lmong Indians Meet A,t 
Shawnee, Oklahoma, To Exchange New 
Views And Information On The Progress 
Of The Long Campaign . 

By Dr. J. G. Townsend, Director of Health 

The third 
meeting of in-service 
tuberculosis institute 
for nurses and physi- 
cians was held at Shaw- 
nee, Oklahoma, on Feb- 
ruary 6 , 7 and 8 , 1939 • 
Seventy-three persons 
attended, including 
Dr. H. W. Hetherington 
and Miss Fannie Eshle- 
man of the Phipps In- 
stitute in Philadelphia 
who conducted the insti 
tute . 

The piorpose 
of this institute was 
to familiarize the doc- 
tors and nurses with 
the household and com- 
munity phases of the 
tuberculosis problem and with the methods advocated to control the disease. 

The first day was devoted to lectiores and discussions on the general 
aspects of the tuberculosis program, presented by Dr. Hetherington, followed by 
a discussion on nursing and health supervision of patients and contacts which 
was presented by Miss Eshleman. Talks on the diagnosis and treatment of tuber- 
culosis, as well as a discussion on health supervision of members of the house- 
hold of tuberculous patients were given. 

Discussions on the part which tubercTilosis plays in a generalized 
public health program, hospital technique, followed by a round table discussion 
in the afternoon, was the program for the second day. 

The last day was devoted to a talk by Mr. Lrndman, Superintendent of 
the Five Civilized Tribes Agency, on the economic factors in the care of tuber- 
culous patients and a question box was conducted by Dr. Townsend. 

These institutes are productive of much good in unifying our methods 
of approach and strengthening our lines of attack on this most iiT5)ortant health 
problem which confronts the Indian. 



By Ten Broeck Williamson, Soil Conservation Service 

Probably nowhere in the United 
States is barter, once so common in this 
country, more practiced than among the 
Indians and Spanish -American villagers 
of New Mexico . 

It is not uncommon for a fam- 
ily to secure all of its necessities 
and most of its luxuries without a cent 
of money actually changing hands . Among 
these people a quarter of beef, a string 
of chili, a sack of corn, or even a day's 
labor, has a definite and recognized ex- 
change value. 

By far, the major volume of busi- 
ness transacted Toy trading posts catering 
to New Mexico Indians is on the barter ba- 
. sis. Typical is a recent exchange made by 
Porcingula Gachupin, a Jemez Pueblo woman, 
at a trading post in Jemez Pueblo. 

To the post, on her head, Mrs. 
Gachupin carried a half sack of wheat. 
Finding that the wheat weighed thirty 
pounds, the clerk offered Mrs. Gachupin 
sixty cents in trade. 


After looking longing- 
ly at bolts of dress goods and 
a brightly -colored shawl, Mrs. 
Gachupin decided to accept in 
exchange for the wheat, two 
pounds of coffee at twenty -fire 
cents per potmd, and one pack- 
age of macaroni at ten cents. 

(Hote: The photographs used in this article have been taken by the 
author, Mr. Ten Broeck Williamson, and used through the courtesy of the Soil 
Conservation Service.) 

♦ • • • • 


Now that Income Tax day has come and gone, some comfort might be 
found by harassed taxpayers in the fact that the first Americans are required, 
just like other citizens, to pay for the upkeep of their government. The fol- 
lowing circular, iss\ied by the Conmissioner of Indian Affairs to all superin- 
tendents last year, cites the law on the subject: 

"Numerous inquiries have been received regarding the liability 
of restricted Indians to Federcd income tax. 

"The Supreme Court of the United States in the case of the Super- 
intendent of the Five Civilized Tribes v. Conmissioner of Internal Rev- 
enue (295 U. S. 418), held that the income of Indians is subject to 
the Federal income tax imless specifically exempted by treaty or act 
of Congress. 

"Unless, therefore, there is specific exemption either by treaty 
or by act of Congress, the Indians should file returns as well as oth- 
er citizens when their income is sufficient to bring them \ander the 
terms of the Federal Income Tax Law." 

All of which may be a shock to those many misinformed persons who 
assume " the government s\ipports the Indians ." 




Cold Weather At Consolidated 
Chippewa (M innesota ) Taking the 
unfavorable weather into consider- 
ation, work has "been mostly on a 
normal progress basis. The coldest 
morning e:q)erienced here this win- 
ter occ\irred last week. Our most 
accurate thermometer registered 45 
degrees below zero. The crews were 
held inside till after the noon 

The Woodduck Truck Trail has 
been progressing as usual. The Nett 
River Bridge crew has been engaged 
in hauling timber to the bridge. 
This crew comprises about ten men. 
The work of keeping the camp supply 
of wood up to requirements is a job 
that requires steady application. 

Leisure time activities are 
confined mostly to ping pong and 
cribbage . The radio fans comprise 
a large portion of the enrollment 
and the reading room always is well 
filled with the listeners-in . Geo . 
H. Thomson . Principal Foreman - 

Timber Stand Improvement At 
Great Lakes ( Wisconsin ) Timber 
stand improvement has gone forth 
with much enthusiasm among the boys 
after instructions were given as to 
the proper methods to be employed 
in this phase of forestry work and 
after being told of the importance 
of this work in the development of 
one of the natural resources of the 
reservation, every boy realizes 
that he has an interest in this 
tract of land which is tribal and 
therefore, makes a greater effort 
to do his part. 

Approximately twenty acres 
have been treated dtjring the past 
week, prvming an average of 250 
trees to the acre. All slash and 

limbs were well lopped. The prog- 
ress of the pruning was retarded 
due to inclement weather prevailing 
during the past three days* William 
J. Graveen , Leader- 

Spring Weather At Yakim» ( Wash - 
ington ) Typical spring weather was 
experienced here at Fort Simcoe 
throughout the week. On truck trail 
maintenance, crews have been clean- 
ing culverts and roadside drainage 
ditches, removing rocks and doing 
general maintenance work. 

Crews working on the "fill" on 
the Fort Simcoe East Truck Trail, 
are doing very commendable work. 
The "fill" is rapidly nearing com- 
pletion and will be of considerable 
value in preventing washouts which 
have occurred during the last sev- 
eral years, resulting from spring 
rains and melting snow higher in 
the mountains . 

A small crew, with the aid of 
two caterpillars, has been leveling 
the old orchard site. This piece 
of land will add much to the land- 
scaping value of the canip. 6. W. 
St . Mitchel, Assistant . 

Fence Building At Grand Ronde - 
Siletz ( Oregon ) This week has been 
the best week we have had for work- 
ing as far as weather is concerned. 
116 rods of fence were con5>leted and 
85 rods of post were set. Two men 
have been cutting posts with ten men 
hauling and 2 men have been cutting 
brush on the fence line. The other 
10 men have been taking up the old 
fence and putting in new. 

The post hole digging has been 
a little slow as we have a lot of 
roots and rocks to content with. 
Roy Langley , Assistant Leader. 


Channel Construction At Shaw- 
nee ( Oklahoma ^ Working under adverse 
conditions this week, we made consid- 
erable progress, completing about 80 
feet of channel construction and com- 
pleting 3 outlet structijres. We also 
dug pits and moved material for other 
structures . 

We attended o\jr weekly education- 
al and recreational meeting this week 
and discussed safety, safety training 
and farming. William Falls . 

The weather has been fine this 
week enabling the trucks to transport 
rock, sand and cement to the various 
projects in the field. The shop crew 
has been busy making repairs on cars 
and trucks • 

The terracing crew has had a 
very good week coinpleting a total of 
2.35 miles on two farms The bull- 
dozer crew completed 486 feet of chan- 
nel construction in addition to making 
several fills- Curtis Rice , Assistant 
Leader . 

Report From Choctaw ( Mississippi ) 
The Indians have been greatly benefited 
by the CCC-ID work which they deeply 
appreciate- In the past there has been 
a considerable amount of crop and pas- 
ttsre land tmprotected, which has been 
destroyed by public stock because there 
were no fences. 

The crop land of the Choctaw In- 
dians is in need of terraces very bad- 
ly. About 80 per cent has been com- 
pleted of the number of miles project- 

A Varied Program At Red Lake 
( Minnesota ) A crew of three are cut- 
ting wood for the camp. It is hard to 
get into the woods where good fire- 
wood can be obtained because of the 
deep snow along the roadside and in 
the woods • 

A crew of three were out do- 
ing location work on the Manomin 
Creek foot trail during the past 
week. The last day of this week 
the whole camp crew was sent out on 
this project to cut apd b\irn brush. 
The crew walked from the camp to the 
job as the road is not passable for 
the truck, due to the heavy snows. 

Progress was very good on cut- 
ting telephone poles . We have a 
team of horses skidding the poles to 
the landing where they will be load- 
ed on the trucks and hauled to the 
agencgr. George Kelly . 

Classes At Rocky Boy ' s ( Montana ) 
Cool even weather this week kept our 
men working without loss of time* 
Classes in arithmetic and grammar 
are very successful this winter. We 
are having good attendance and the 
interest of the classes seems to be 
very good, 

A crew of enrollees \inder the 
leadership of the telephone lineman 
is busy repairing the telephone 
lines and clearing brtish out of the 
right-of-way. Frit.jof A. Hutlin . 
Camp Assistant • 

Rigjit-Of-Way Clearance At Kesh - 
ena ( Wisconsin ! Our work has been 
devoted chiefly to right-of-way 
clearance. There are a number of 
large trees in the path of the rd^t- 
of-way. These have to be removed. 
They are doing a fine job of it. All 
the dead timber which can be used 
for cord wood is being piled up 
longside the road, the rest of the 
brush and old stiomps are being 
burned. This trail will make an 
excellent fire break. J ames Brisk . 

Various Activities At Fort 
Berthold ( North Dakota ) One of the 
trailer houses used at the Dam No. 
26 in the vicinity of Sanish, has 


returned. The tools, kitchen uten- 
sils, cots, etc., in the house were 
checked and stored away in the were- 
house. This concludes the return 
of tools and equipment from the dam. 

The sign painter made several 
signs for the Little Missouri Vehi- 
cle "bridge constructed by the CCC-ID. 
These signs are necessary to warn 
the traveling public not to ford the 
river within thirty-five feet west 
of the bridge. The cable anchors 
are located in this area, and, per- 
haps will be under the water line. 

The blacksmith sharpened ten 
axes, three crowbars, three steel 
wedges and repaired the handles of 
some of the axes. He made six iron 
tamping bars, six eye bolts for 
bridges, hooks for a truck steplad- 
der and did other repair work. Chas . 
Huber , Sr. Warehouseman • 

Report From Standing Rock ( North 
Dakota ) I have had the men digging 
all week. The ground is frozen so 
hard that progress is slow. We are 
chejiging the channel in the creek 
where the bridge is to be built. We 
had a safety meeting on the storage 

and handling of inflammable liquids- 
The boys realize that the safety 
lessons are part of the work and 
take an interest in them. J- C. 
M\irphy . 

Truck Trail Construction At Mes - 
calero (New Mexico ) The truck trail 
in Tularosa Canyon is being brou^t 
to a slow but sure finish. The mater- 
ial being used now is much better than 
it has been. Before this time we have 
had to content with mud and snow and 
naturally the construction work has 
been hindered to a great extent. 

The maintenance crew is working 
up Tularosa Canyon, cutting and fill- 
ing in the ruts that came with the 
mud and snow . 

The telephone crew has been 
busy maintaining lines in Mud Canyon 
this past week- The line was broken 
due to heavy winds and snow. 

Our enrollees enjoyed another 
very interesting field day this week. 
The topic generally discussed was 
greater cooperation among the enroll- 
ees themselves as well as with the 
employees with whom they work. James 
M. Cox. 

CCC-ID Enrollees At Chin Lee